Made a little guide on the starbound wiki for this but it's a little wordy so here's a shorter version!
To fuel your ship, use unrefined wood or coal
Wood no longer fuels ships. Coal I believe still does.
Moons are cold. Torches and bonfire give heat, leather armor protects against cold nullifying the need for the warmth from torches. Just the hat alone will hold out well enough in the lower tiers
Adding to the above, the little bar with the sun on it is your warmth. That reaches 0, you die.
Leather armor (haven't played in the new patch yet so might be changed) has really good armor for being easy to make, so don't ignore it!
Leather armor got nerfed. Still good though, just won't carry you on as far.
Armor has 3 icons, shield is physical damage reduction, lightning bolt is either magic damage reduction or bonus energy (not sure), sun is protection against cold (so how warm the armor is)
New patch added an icon. bolt with arrows around it is energy recharge rate. Bolt by itself is additional energy. Heart is additional health. Shield remains the same, sun remains the same.
Put your benches and other crafting stations on your ship so that you don't have to create new ones one each planet visit or go home repeatedly. Furnaces too.
You can place stuff in your ship, including dirt. So those 3 race specific food seeds you get you should plant in your ship, will give you a nice supply of food so you don't die from hunger.
3D printer is broken so just leave it alone :(
They did a stat/weapon/armor overhaul recently and I haven't gotten to mess with it so take this with a grain of salt: Armor Penetration is the most important stat in determining how much damage you will do to an enemy. Always go for a weapon with higher AP then yours currently has.
Armor penetration is gone. Damage values are all that matters now. Armor is less of an issue and more to mitigate damage than set tiers. Go for the deeps!
First few steps you take should be making a pickaxe, axe, and hoe. Don't rely on the matter manipulator for longer than you need to.
Don't neglect to cut down vines. Get a hundred or some plant fibers and make bandages with them, they heal you!
Desert planets are awesome. Any ore that is in a fine sand block will break when a fine sand block below it breaks. This causes you to get ores without mining the actual blocks themselves and since fine sand will avalanche in im a similar way like say minecraft, you can get tons or ore this way. I would suggest flying to a desert planet as soon as you can :) Be wary though, not much wood so pack plenty before you go.
Grassland planets are also good for ore and it's mostly dirt which is easy enough to dig through. They seem to tend to have ore at the top layer as well.
The L and R item slots at the top of the hud are a bit confusing to work with but a nice way to make use of it is to put torches into the R slot. What this does is, if you are on slot 1 (say your pickaxe), and you hit the 1 key, it will switch to the torches. Hit the 1 key once more to switch back to your pickaxe. Nice little thing to have torches on hand and easily accessible.
Bug but, stuff in your upper hotbar won't count towards crafting materials. So if you have torches, but you can't make a campfire, it's probably because there are no torches in your actual inventory (they are all in your upper hotbar!)
Every planet seems to have atleast one above ground structure/castle/village/feature so planet hop killing everything for some good pixels. Or hell actually talk to the npcs, some of them are merchants and can sell you some nice stuff :)