Any updates on the build? Were you going to use this to install your games on as well, or just for your music & movies? If yes to games, does it actually perform well enough over the network for games to run as well as they would off an internal drive?
I'm not sure what gave you the impression that the new jungle is so punishing. Before they changed it, it was a lot less forgiving and allowed for fewer styles of play. This guide probably covers the subject far better than I can, but I'll still address your questions as best I can.
With the help of mid and the adjacent lane you should be able to clear Wolves or Wraiths when they spawn at 1:40. You should clear that and make your way to the nearby buff before it spawns at 1:55.
The choice of which to start with depends primarily on which character you are playing. Champions that don't use mana, or have strong ganking abilities at lvl 2 will often start with Red buff. (see, Shyvana, Nocturne, Shaco, Shen, etc) Champions that rely on having mana to clear the jungle will need to start at blue. (see Amumu, Fiddlesticks, Skarner, Warwick, etc) Both camps will respawn 5 minutes after the final minion is killed, and you should be taking them or donating them (blue to your AP mid if they use mana, red to your AD carry) whenever they are available.
This might be one of the most difficult subtleties of jungling to master. Gank when you have red buff to slow them. Gank when you reach level 2/4/6 and get your first rank in a skill with crowd control. (Nocturne level 2 fear, Rammus level 4 taunt, Warwick level 6 ult, etc) Gank when the enemy has pushed the lane up to your own tower. Gank from the lane bushes in top and bottom when the lane is pushed up to the enemy tower. Gank when you have cleared out most of your jungle and don't have enough gold to go buy anything (but do have enough HP/mana to do something useful).
Some characters are capable of jungling without smite, but you should take it regardless. If you pay attention it allows you to secure or steal important objectives (dragons and buffs earlier, baron later). This will require you to check the tooltip to see how much damage your smite will do, and left clicking on the target in question to watch its HP in the top left corner of your screen. Use smite to secure the kill the moment it drops below the amount of damage your smite will deal.
Item builds depends entirely on what character you are playing. Look up a guide for a specific character on lolpro. (Take notes on a scrap of paper if you can't remember or don't have a second monitor). The most basic route is to clear Wolves, Blue buff, cross mid, clear Wraiths, Red buff, twin golems, return to clear wraiths a second time (giving you level 4), then return to shop. You will have about 500g, enough to get a small item + sight ward. Then find a lane to gank with your red buff.
Later in the game, you'll go back for the same reasons that any other lane would: low on HP/mana or you have gold to spend (lots or just enough to finish Wiggles, GP/5 or something else important).
Like items, runes are fairly dependent on the champion being played. Armor seals are the law, because everything in the jungle will be doing physical damage to you. Your marks will probably be armor pen, spell pen, or attack speed. Again, it's best to refer to a champion specific guide for runes and masteries. Summoner spells are 75% Flash+Smite. A few might replace flash with ghost, exhaust, or something else. (Shyvana often takes Exhaust+Smite because she can use her ult to escape over walls, and exhaust helps make up for her lack of CC, making those ganks succeed more often.)
There are an incredible amount of subtle things you will need to master in order to become a great jungler, but the most important is to get comfortable clearing the jungle and executing ganks. From there you can start worrying about timing objectives (5 for buffs, 6 for dragon, 7 for baron), counter-jungling, etc.
At this point, I don't really put Logitech or Razer in the cheap-but-good category. Logitech's cheap products aren't nearly as good as they used to be, and though they are usually quite good, Razer's products rarely fit a price point that low. My favorite entry in the cheap-but-good category are the hardware from Microsoft. Don't go wireless unless you have your heart set on it; just keep it simple.
I was just browsing around my usual places and in the forums for League of Legends there is a thread over a year old somehow ended up with a broken database reference for its last post author and time, which effectively causes it to be a sticky thread without actually being one.