He was the founding member of YMO, along with Ryuichi Sakamoto and Yukihiro Takahashi. Hosono has also released many solo albums covering a variety of styles, including film soundtracks and a variety of electronic ambient albums. As well as recording his own music, Hosono has done considerable production work for other artists such as Miharu Koshi, Sheena and the Roketts, Sandii and the Sunsetz, Chisato Moritaka and Seiko Matsuda.
He was one of the first music producers to recognize the appeal of video game sounds and music. YMO's self titled debut in 1978 contained substantial video game sounds, and after YMO disbanded,an early project by Hosono was an album simply titled Video Game Music containing mixed and edited Namco arcade game music and sounds. Video Game Music was released in 1984 as an early example of a chiptune record and the first video game music album.