Rock-Paper-Scissors (referred to in different orders depending on region) is the most basic idea of the concept of attributable strength and weakness.
Essentially, it sets up an unbreakable loop where every entry defeats another, and is in turn defeated by yet another.
Although the titular example is simple to the point where it is literally played and understood by children on the playground, many games take this idea and run with it; the Pokémon franchise features dozens of elemental "types" that all interact in the RPS format. Fire-type Pokémon are strong against Grass-types and Ice-types, but are in turn weak against Water-types and Rock-types. Each of the types has strengths and weakness (of differing levels, even) with several others, and Pokémon can be crossbreeds with two types, which cause them to have a mixture of the base types' strengths and weaknesses.