Egypt was founded along the Nile river and was ruled by kings and Pharaohs for thousands of years. It had one of the oldest civilizations on Earth, along with Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). Ancient Egypt is famous for many things, including art, architecture, mathematics, medicine, and of course the Pyramids and the Mummies.
Egypt was eventually conquered by the Persian Empire under Darius the Great in the 6th century BC. It was then conquered by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, establishing Alexandria as Egypt's new capital. Following Cleopatra's reign in the 1st century BC, it was conquered by Julius Caesar and came under Roman rule. And finally, it was conquered by the Arab Empire in the 7th century AD and became a Muslim Arabic region, with Cairo as Egypt's new capital.