Blood is one of the essential fluids in the human body. On average, the human body contains about two gallons of blood. Blood is composed of plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Plasma is the main part of blood fluid: it is about 90% water and also contains dissolved nutrients and minerals, and carries waste carbon dioxide away from cells. Red blood cells are the main carrier of oxygen to cells in the body. White blood cells are a key component of the human adaptive immune system. Oxygenated blood in mammals is bright red, while blood with little or no oxygen turns to a darker red or purplish color.
Blood in Games
Blood in video games is typically used to enhance the visceral nature of action games. Blood may spray from a wound to show that a character has been shot or punched, as it does in Gears of War
or Mortal Kombat
. Blood is also used in horror games to incite a sense of anxiety in the player. Many of the scenes in Resident Evil
, Silent Hill
, or F.E.A.R.
showcase noticeable splatters of blood to suggest that a violent act had recently been comitted there.
Games Ratings and Censorship
The visible presence of blood in a video game can increase its rating as determined by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board.
The use of "minimal blood" can warrant a Teen rating, while increased amounts of blood or intense violence can lead to a Mature or Adults Only rating. Mortal Kombat was one of the first games to receive serious criticism for its levels of violence; subsequently, the home versions of Mortal Kombat for the SNES and Sega Genesis were censored
, turning the blood into white "sweat." Playing Samurai Showdown
on an American Neo Geo AES system would cause the blood to turn white, but 3rd-party modified BIOS chips can be installed to reverse the effect. TRIVIA
The Sega Genesis version of Mortal Kombat has a secret code that turns the white "sweat" back into red blood. The code is perfomed by pressing A, B, A, C, A, B, B.