The History and Impact of Spacewar! (1962)
Spacewar! was one of the first graphical video games in existence. There were games before Spacewar!; two frequently cited examples are OXO, a Tic-Tac-Toe game developed by A.S. Douglas in 1952, and Tennis for Two (perhaps an inspiration for the famous Pong) developed by William Higinbotham as an independent, analog device (instead of a piece of software developed for an existing system). The impact, though, of Spacewar! and its resultant dissemination among the small groups of computer users and programmers at the time arguably helped pave the way for the popularity of video games that was to explode in the coming decades.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology had acquired an expensive computer called the PDP-1 from Digital Equipment Corporation, and had hired on several students attending the university to develop programs for the machine. Among these programmers were Steve "Slug" Russell and Martin "Shag" Graetz. Wayne Wiitanen contributed to the design and evolution of the game, but did not help in the actual writing of the code. In 1961, these three conceived of a complex program which would fully utilize the computer's vector based, circular cathode ray tube monitor, while fulfilling their ambition to see a game that reflected pulp science fiction sensibilities.
Using sine/cosine functions acquired by Alan Kotok from DEC, Steve Russell set about coding what would become Spacewar! in February of 1962. The reason, though, that the authorship of the game itself can not be put on one man was that the development of the game did not resemble the compartmentalized structuring that many programming firms use today. The basic game which Steve Russell wrote was later added to by other programmers, many working at what Russell had dubbed The Hingham Institute Space Warfare Study Group, a fancy way of saying Russell's house. As the game spread, the list of features and their designers grew.
In the basic game, two players were pitted against each other in a duel. Both controlled a spaceship, one wedge shaped, one cigar shaped, which were destroyed in one hit if they ran into any other object in the game. Each had a limited amount of torpedoes which could be fired at the other from the front of the craft, adding to the current speed of the craft, with a hit killing the target. These torpedoes had proximity fuses which would detonate if the torpedo got too close to another object, including other torpedoes, eliminating the need for coding collision detection for them. The ships could rotate about their center, and had thrusters, with limited fuel reserves, which propelled them forward. Initially a random star field was added, because players needed to gauge their relative speed and position to try to be able to hit their opponent.
To help add variety to the battles, a hyperspace ability was added by Graetz, which allowed ships to blink out of existence and reappear randomly elsewhere in the playing field. Each time this was done there was a chance that the ship would explode by coming too close to other objects, and if the hyperspace was used during a duel the ship would automatically explode, to prevent player abuse of the feature. Finally, at the center of the playing area was a flickering star which exuded gravitational influence on the two ships, accelerating them slowly toward the center (and their destruction if they didn't thrust or hyperspace out of the way).
One notable addition was Peter Samson's star field (dubbed Expensive Planetarium, the term expensive being a joke referring to how much the machine itself had cost). This star field was an accurate representation of the night's sky, in contrast to the random star field coded by Russell. Samson's star field slowly rotated as the game progressed, giving players a full view of the actual position of stars over time. This did not add to game play as such, but it did show off the processing power of this machine to contemporaries.
Other options were added and features changed. These included toggle switches that altered gameplay: the central star's gravity could be switched on and off, the existence of angular momentum could be removed, the star field could be switched off, and a "winds of space" feature could be added which pushed spaceships in one direction, forcing players to use more thrust to go in certain directions and causing drift.
Players originally played the game using the debugging switches on the machine, but these quickly wore out, so controllers were built from scratch. These were the predecessors to modern video game joysticks.
As there was no video game market, and the machine that used Spacewar! was prohibitively expensive to all but the most wealthy institutions, it was decided that the game, as popular as it was with everyone who played it, would be distributed freely, and the source code was given to anyone who requested it. New PDP-1 machines were shipped with the game in their memory, both as a demonstration of its visual functions and its processing power. The game was also a valuable tool to debug the machine out of the box in case of irregularities.
Many of those who are now thought of gaming gurus, who lived through this early era in computing, had their start with Spacewar! It can be said that the game's influence helped energize the next generation of software designers, who would eventually create the first home video game consoles and arcade machines. Nolan Bushnell, who would later found Atari, created a conceptual clone of Spacewar! with single player capabilities. Others modified the design to include new features for the game, but because the memory of PDP machines could only hold so much code at one time, there were regional variations on the basic Spacewar! design. The ARPAnet, a pre-internet computer network, was used to disseminate different versions to others with similar systems.
Spacewar! was later remade in both arcade and home form. Features like gravity would later influence many games, and gravity, angular momentum, ammunition and fuel limits, and Samson's desire for a realistic star chart would hint at the coming desires for realistic physics and verisimilitude. Games that would borrow heavily from the formula of Spacewar! and its clones were Asteroids, now one of the famous games from the early era of popular video games, and Star Control, which even had a gravity well at the center of the play field while two ships with limited resources dueled for supremacy.
While Spacewar! was by no means capable of entering every home on the cumbersome, expensive PDP, it helped show the appeal for such entertainment, and can be argued to have helped bring about the current age of video game entertainment.
Credited contributors to the game
Steve "Slug" Russell
Martin "Shag" Graetz
Initial Coding by:
Contributing features created by:
Robert A. Saunders
Steven Levy's Hackers - Heroes of the Computer Revolution
Spacewar! on Wikipedia
Computer History Museum: Spacewar!
Joystick Nation: How Computer Games Ate Our Quarters, Won Our Hearts, And Rewired Our Minds
YouTube - Spacewar! (MIT 1962)
The Origin of Spacewar by J.M. Graetz
The Dot Eaters - Player 1 Stage 1: Bits From the Primordial Ooze