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Minecraft is a 3D fantasy action-adventure open world first-person survival platformer developed and published digitally by Mojang for the PC, Mac, and Linux on November 18, 2011. Along with numerous free alpha and beta releases (for supporting browsers) since May 17, 2009, the game received numerous revisions, updates, and ports (to both smartphones and seventh-generation/eighth-generation consoles).

Presented with a unique low-resolution "voxel" aesthetic (where everything is shaped using cubes), the game allows players to interact with a variety of different "blocks" in a procedurally-generated world. Along with both resource mining/gathering and item crafting (hence the game name), the game features exploration (with multiple biomes and locations), combat, and construction. In addition to the standard "Survival" mode, the game features a sandbox "Creative" mode that allows players to design environments with an unlimited amount of blocks at their disposal and no survival elements. The game supports online multiplayer and later supported numerous content packs (including new world/block textures and player skins, many of which are cross-promotions with other games and franchises).

Originally created by indie developer Markus "Notch" Persson (whose roles were later taken over by fellow indie developer Jens "Jeb" Bergensten), Minecraft was ported to numerous smartphones (originally known as Minecraft: Pocket Edition) and consoles (originally known as Minecraft: Console Edition, where the "Console" in the name was replaced by the console's name). On September 20, 2017, the game received a major "Better Together" update that merges the smartphone version with some console versions (including Windows 10, Xbox One, and later Nintendo Switch) together for a single multi-platform version (known simply as Minecraft, with the original computer versions renamed to Minecraft: Java Edition) with all features accessible (including cross-platform multiplayer). Alternate editions include a multi-platform version for use in classroom settings (Minecraft: Education Edition), a cut-down version for small Raspberry Pi microcomputers (Minecraft: Pi Edition), and a multi-platform version for use in China (Minecraft China).

The game received some spin-offs, including the 2015 adventure game Minecraft: Story Mode (and its 2017 sequel), the upcoming dungeon crawler Minecraft: Dungeons, and the upcoming augmented-reality game Minecraft Earth. The game's procedurally-generated sandbox elements also inspired many game clones in both 2D (including Terraria and Starbound) and 3D (including Dragon Quest Builders and LEGO Worlds).


Original / Java Edition

The original Minecraft, developed using custom engine in Java, had three major pre-release phases: pre-Alpha (from May 17, 2009 to June 30, 2010), Alpha (from June 30, 2010 to December 3, 2010), and Beta (from December 20, 2010 to November 11, 2011). Most of the versions in these phases (including some prior) can be played in the final release through the launcher.

While pre-Alpha builds were released for free as a browser-based game (with some benefits for those with a premium membership), versions beginning with Alpha required both a standalone launcher and paid authentication.

  • The first pre-Alpha versions, which began on May 17, 2009 and was later called "Classic", originally lacked survival elements (making it a primitive version of the "Creative" game mode), and had restricted randomly-generated terrain (surrounded by endless ocean). Online multiplayer was added on May 31, 2009. An alternate single-player version with basic survival elements (such as enemy mobs, a health system, and a basic bow-and-arrow system) was added on September 1, 2009 and updated alongside the regular version.
  • The second pre-Alpha versions, which began on December 23, 2009 and was also called "Indev" (in-development), is based on the "survival" version of the above version and added a new dynamic lighting system, the crafting and inventory systems, optional map themes, specialized tools and weapons, a day-night cycle, and farming.
  • The last pre-Alpha versions, which began on February 27, 2010 and was also called called "Infdev" ("infinite development") revamped the terrain generator to allow "infinite" procedurally-generated terrain. In addition, this version adds more craftable items (including signs, ladders, doors, and minecarts) and more complex cave systems (including special dungeons).
  • The Alpha versions, which began on June 30, 2010, added online multiplayer, biomes, redstone circuitry, improved A.I. pathfinding, new block types (including stairs), and a new hidden realm (The Nether). Most of the updates were added as "Seecret Friday" updates, which intentionally left the changelog barren to let players find out what's changed.
  • The Beta versions, which began on December 20, 2010, added numerous block and mob types (including beds and tame-able wolves) while revamping the inventory system (making it harder for clients to hack) and adding both weather effects and achievements. One of the last major updates (also called the "Adventure Update", released on September 14, 2011), revamped the game's biome generation while adding new combat mechanics (such as critical hits), an experience system, a hunger system, sprinting, and new pre-generated structures (such as villages). The Adventure Update also adds a new Creative Mode.

The game later received a full v1.0.0 release on November 18, 2011, and has received numerous post-release updates. This version of the was later renamed to Minecraft: Java Edition on September 18, 2017 to distinguish it from the newer multi-platform release of the game.

A restricted-use demo version was released on August 1, 2012, allowing limited single-player play on a pre-generated map that resets after five in-game days (~100 minutes).

In celebration of the game's 10th anniversary in development, an early version of the game (0.0.23a_01) was re-made using a custom engine in JavaScript for supported browsers on May 7, 2019. Titled Minecraft Classic, it was released for free and can be found here.

Bedrock / Pocket Edition

The first official ports of the game were released for smartphones as Minecraft: Pocket Edition. Developed in-house by Mojang (with a game engine re-written from the ground up in C++), certain aspects of the game were revised for touchscreen gameplay. It received numerous public pre-release revisions from August 16, 2011 to its official release on December 19, 2016.

  • The Android version was the first version released to the public, originally as an exclusive to the Xperia PLAY smartphone on August 16, 2011. It was then made available to other devices on October 8, 2011. It was later released for Fire OS on September 13, 2012, although it was later discontinued and re-released on December 19, 2016 as Minecraft: Fire TV Edition. A special version for Samsung Gear VR headsets, known as Minecraft: Gear VR Edition, was released on April 27, 2016.
  • The iOS version was released on November 17, 2011. It was also released for the Apple TV on December 19, 2016 (as Minecraft: Apple TV Edition), which was later discontinued on September 24, 2018.
  • The Windows Phone 8.1 version was released by Microsoft on December 10, 2014 and was later discontinued on November 18, 2016. It was also released for Windows 10 Mobile on February 22, 2017.
  • The Windows 10 version, known as Minecraft: Windows 10 Edition, was digitally released by Microsoft via the Microsoft Store on July 29, 2015. This version later supported virtual reality through the Oculus Rift (when downloaded from the Oculus Store).

Along with post-release updates, the game received a multi-platform re-release on September 20, 2017, simply known as Minecraft. Known out-of-game as the "Bedrock" version, the Android, iOS, and Windows 10 versions use a unified codebase and support cross-platform multiplayer. In addition, three console ports were re-released with this new codebase (also with cross-platform multiplayer support):

  • The Xbox One version, which was released digitally by Microsoft on September 20, 2017. It was later released in retail format on November 7, 2017.
  • The Nintendo Switch version, which was released in both digital and retail formats on June 21, 2018.
  • The PlayStation 4 version, which was released in both digital and retail formats on December 10, 2019.

The Pocket Edition version was also used as the base for Other Ocean's New Nintendo 3DS port of the game (released digitally by Mojang on September 13, 2017 as Minecraft: New Nintendo 3DS Edition). This version was released in retail format on November 10, 2017.

Console Edition

All "Console Edition" versions of the game were ported by Scottish studio 4J Studios (previously responsible for HD ports of the first two Banjo-Kazooie games and Perfect Dark). As of December 10, 2019, all "Console Edition" versions of the game are deprecated and not in active development.

The game engine used for these versions were re-written from the ground up in C++ and has numerous changes, including split-screen multiplayer functionality, an automatic crafting system, a more limited world size (which was improved with later console releases), player skins as downloadable content, and bonus game modes.

Some versions of the game were re-released as a multi-platform game (also known as the "Bedrock Edition"). While content (such as DLC and save games) can be transferred from the older version to the newer one, multiplayer between them is incompatible.

  • Minecraft: Xbox 360 Edition was digitally released by Microsoft for the Xbox 360 on May 9, 2012. It was later released in retail format on June 4, 2013. Players can transfer save games to the original XB1 version. This version is discontinued, with its last update on March 19, 2019.
  • Minecraft: PlayStation 3 Edition was digitally released by Sony for the PlayStation 3 on December 17, 2013. It was later released in retail format on May 18, 2014. The game was later made Cross-Buy compatible with the PSVita version, and save games are cross-compatible. Players can transfer save games to the PS4 version. This version is discontinued, with its last update on March 19, 2019.
  • Minecraft: Xbox One Edition was digitally released by Microsoft for the Xbox One on September 5, 2014. It was later released in retail format on November 18, 2014. Players can import save games from the X360 version and transfer save games to the newer Bedrock XB1 version. Owners of the digital version can upgrade to the Bedrock version for free, but owners of the retail version had a limited window to redeem a digital copy of the "Bedrock" version. This version is discontinued, with its last update on August 24, 2018.
  • Minecraft: PlayStation 4 Edition was digitally released by Sony for the PlayStation 4 on September 5, 2014. It was later released in retail format on October 3, 2014. Players can import save games from the PS3 and PSVita versions and transfer save games to the newer Bedrock PS4 version. It was the last Console Edition game to still have continued development and was discontinued, with its last update on September 9, 2019. It later received a free update to the Bedrock version on December 10, 2019.
  • Minecraft: PlayStation Vita Edition was digitally released by Sony for the PlayStation Vita on October 14, 2014. It was later released in retail format on November 11, 2014. The game is Cross-Buy compatible with the PS3 version, and save games are cross-compatible. Players can transfer save games to the PS4 version. This version is discontinued, with its last update on March 19, 2019.
  • Minecraft: Wii U Edition was digitally released by Mojang for the Wii U on December 17, 2015. It was later released in retail format on June 17, 2016. Players can transfer save games to the Switch version. This version is discontinued, with its last update on March 19, 2019.
  • Minecraft: Nintendo Switch Edition was digitally released by Mojang for the Nintendo Switch on May 11, 2017. Players can import save games from the Wii U version and transfer save games to the newer Bedrock Switch version. Owners can upgrade to the Bedrock version for free. This version is discontinued, with its last update on June 21, 2018.

Special Editions

Minecraft: Pi Edition

Minecraft: Pi Edition is a free version of Pocket Edition developed for the Raspberry Pi series of microcomputers (running Linux-based Raspbian OS) on February 11, 2013. It was later included by default in installations of the Raspbian OS.

Despite its abandonment (as there have been no updates) and simplicity (with a cut-down version of Creative mode), this version is used as an educational tool for programmers, as it supports multiple programming languages for scripting.

Minecraft: Education Edition

Minecraft: Education Edition is a special variant of the Windows 10 version for use in classroom teaching. Released on November 1, 2016 for eligible institutions (including schools, public libraries, and public museums), Education Edition allows educators to build lesson plans by restricting building/exploration, creating NPCs, spectating all students, and allowing students to document using screenshots (using unique Camera and Portfolio items).

It was later released to iOS on September 6, 2018.

Minecraft China

Minecraft China is a localized variant of the original "Java Edition" version of the game, released by NetEase for the PC on August 8, 2017. It was released as a freemium download with some altered functionality (relying on a new launcher created by NetEase and requiring a NetEase account).

Special Minecraft China variants of the iOS and Android versions were released shortly after (September 5, 2017 for iOS and October 12, 2017 for Android).


Game Modes

In Minecraft, the game has two main game modes: Survival and Creative. Server owners can switch between them using console commands.

In addition, server owners for some versions of the game can enable special player-vs-player multiplayer minigames using custom maps.


Survival Mode is the base game mode of Minecraft, starting players empty in an open procedurally-generated world. Players must explore the world, collect resources, upgrade their gear, battle hostile mobs, and manage both their health and their hunger.

While the game has no pre-determined goals, players can work on the game's achievements and advancements (depending on both the game's version and whether these features are not voided due to server changes) and can build new structures to their heart's content.

While playing Survival Mode, players can choose from four difficulty levels for their world:

  • Peaceful - Hostile and potentially-hostile mobs cannot spawn naturally. Changing to this difficulty from others remove all hostile and potentially-hostile mobs from the world. The hunger meter cannot deplete.
  • Easy - Hostile mobs and potentially-hostile mobs can now spawn. When the hunger meter is fully depleted, the player's health begins to drain down until it reaches 50%.
  • Normal - Hostile mobs and explosions now deal additional damage to players. When the hunger meter is fully depleted, the player's health begins to drain down until it reaches 5%. Certain hostile mobs now have additional attacks. Villagers killed by Zombies have a 50% chance of becoming a Zombie.
  • Hard - Hostile mobs and explosions now deal even greater damage to players. When the hunger meter is fully depleted, the player's health begins to drain down to 0% (causing them to die from starvation). Certain mobs are now more likely to spawn with weapons and armor. Zombies can now break down doors and spawn reinforcements. Villagers killed by zombies now always become a Zombie.

In addition, the Java Edition has a bonus Hardcore game mode, which locks the difficulty to Hard while disabling the Bonus Chest, cheat commands, and the ability to respawn after death (only allowing dead players to spectate the world).


Creative Mode allows players to build structures freely with no resource or inventory management, no crafting, no combat, and no health or hunger management. Players have an alternate inventory that allows them an infinite selection of almost all blocks and items in the game. They can also toggle the ability to fly around freely by double-jumping.

Starting Out

When creating a new game in Minecraft, a world is generated and the player is spawned at a random spot. That spot is the player's spawn point and will remain their fixed spawn point until the player rests in a bed. From that point on the bed becomes their new spawn point. The world continues to generate around the player in all directions for a while, and as the player moves around the world more will be generated. The world is stored in 16x16 cubes of blocks, called chunks. The world is created of same-sized blocks. The most common of these are dirt, sand and stone. Everything in Minecraft revolves around obtaining these blocks, placing them in the world, and crafting them into useful items.

To collect blocks, the player left-clicks on a block and cracks will appear in it. If they continue to left-click until the cracks fill the block, the block will shatter dropping a miniature version of itself (or a particular material depending on the block type). The time it takes to collect a block depends on the block the player is collecting and the tool (if any) that they are using. Most mineral-based blocks will require the proper tool to be harvested (stone will not yield cobblestone unless mined with a pick, snow tiles will not yield snowballs unless harvested with a shovel, etc.). Once collected, initial blocks will be placed into the player's hotbar (from left to right), with spillover collecting into the rest of the player's inventory. To place a block, equip it in the hotbar (with either the mouse wheel or corresponding number key) and right-click on another block. [NOTE: Some blocks when collected will yield an item instead of a block (such as diamond or coal) this item cannot be placed and right-click will do nothing.] Take care when using tools as using the incorrect tool on a specific block type will waste two uses of the tool instead of just one (for instance, using a pickaxe on a tree).

Collecting blocks is only the first part of playing Minecraft, then comes crafting, which is more important. In the inventory screen (Default hotkey: E) there is a 2x2 square grid used for crafting. To craft an item, the player must place the correct ingredients in the correct shape in the grid. Some items can be created with very simple diagrams (i.e. a single block of wood will create four wooden planks), while others can be very complicated. One very important early game craft is to create a workbench (which allows players to craft in a 3x3 square allowing them to create more advanced items). A workbench is created with four planks; one placed in each spot of the 2x2 grid.

Once players have crafted a workbench, the next step is crafting tools like shovels and axes. These allow players to gather blocks more quickly and collect more advanced blocks. After a player makes tools the rest of the game is up to them. Players can mine for rare ore, build elaborate structures and much more.


As of update 1.5, Minecraft has weather in the form of rain, snow and thunderstorms. Rain will occur, if rarely, in all biomes except desert, tundra and taiga, and snow will only fall in the tundra and taiga biomes, or at a certain altitude. Instances of both of these weather effects will last approximately 15 minutes, and thunderstorms may occur during either. During thunderstorms the world becomes darker, dark enough that enemy mobs may spawn, and lightning strikes setting fire to the block it hits. Snow fall will cover most blocks in snow and cause water to freeze and become blocks of ice.


The following is a complete list of the blocks present in Minecraft as of version 1.2.5. They are listed by their data values as used in the game's code. Items marked with an asterisk cannot be obtained without the use of a memory editor. Certain blocks with identical functions are identified with the same code with an extra digit appended to indicate a different appearance.

IDBlock NameBlock DescriptionAppearance
0*AirAir is spontaneously generated in any area which is not currently holding a block. It has no effect on the player.
1StoneStone is the most abundant block in Minecraft, making up the majority of its cave systems and rock formations. It cannot be obtained without the use of a pickaxe, and drops cobblestone when mined successfully.
2GrassGrows on top of dirt when enough light is present. Hoeing grass has a chance to produce grass seeds, which can be planted to grow wheat.
3DirtDirt covers most of the surface of the world in Minecraft. It has little use beyond being a makeshift building material, though it can be hoed to produce farmland (see block ID 60).
4CobblestoneProduced automatically when stone is mined, or when lava runs over water. Its properties are otherwise identical to that of stone.
5-0Oak PlanksAll planks are crafted from logs of their respective wood type. Planks make a good (albeit flammable) building material, and can be used in a multitude of crafting recipes.
5-1Spruce PlanksSee above.
5-2Birch PlanksSee above.
5-3Jungle PlanksSee above.
6-0Oak SaplingTree saplings drop from decayed leaves on tree which have been cut down. They can be used to plant new trees.
6-1Spruce SaplingSee above.
6-2Birch SaplingSee above.
6-3Jungle SaplingSee above.
7*BedrockBedrock is unbreakable. It inhabits only the bottom of the world and is used to keep players from falling into the Void.
8*WaterSlows movement. It can be traversed more quickly in boats. The player can only survive for a finite amount of time underwater before he begins to asphyxiate.
9*Water SourceGenerates water.
11*Lava SourceGenerates lava.
12SandSand is found in deserts. It is the only block which permits the planting of cacti. It is also one of only two solid blocks that obey physics.
13GravelGravel is the only solid block other than sand that obeys physics. It occasionally yields flint as a drop instead of gravel.
14Gold OreGold ore can be mined using a pickaxe and smelted to produce gold ingots. Its characteristics are otherwise identical to those of stone.
15Iron OreIron ore can be mined using a pickaxe and smelted to produce iron ingots. Its characteristics are otherwise identical to those of stone.
16Coal OreCoal ore can be mined with a pickaxe to produce coal. Its characteristics are otherwise identical to those of stone.
17-0Oak LogAll wood logs form the base of trees. When all of a tree's log blocks are harvested, the leaves decay. Logs can be smelted into charcoal.
17-1Spruce LogSee above.
17-2Birch LogSee above.
17-3Jungle LogSee above.
18-0Oak LeavesLeaves are generated automatically when a new tree grows. They have a small chance to drop saplings when they decay or are harvested, and can be obtained in their grown form using shears.
18-1Spruce LeavesSee above.
18-2Birch LeavesSee above.
18-3Jungle LeavesSee above.
19SpongeOriginally added due to a problem with water generation. This block no longer has any practical use.
20GlassIs transparent, allowing the player to make windows and skylights. Windows are now able to use panes (see block ID 102) instead.
21Lapis Lazuli OreLapis Lazuli ore can be mined using a pickaxe to produce lapis lazuli. Its characteristics are otherwise identical to those of stone.
22Lapis Lazuli BlockCrafted from nine lapis lazuli. Has no practical use.
23DispenserLaunches items a short distance when provided with power. Can also be loaded with arrows and incendiary munition to serve as stationary defense.
24Sandstone BlockForms naturally under three blocks of sand or can be crafted from four blocks of sand. Very weak.
25Note BlockPlays a player-determined note ranging from F#3 to F#5 when provided power.
26*Half-Bed BlockMakes up half a bed. Has no function on its own (see Bed in Items section)
27Powered RailA Minecart rail that accelerates a cart which passes over it, provided it is receiving power.
28Detector RailOutputs a redstone signal when a cart passes over it.
29Sticky PistonPushes or pulls a block which remains locked to its surface one meter when provided power.
30SpiderwebSlows the player significantly. Inhabits abandoned mineshafts.
31Tall GrassOccurs on top of grass. Occasionally yields seeds when harvested.
32Dead BushOccurs in desert biomes where tall grass would otherwise have spawned
33PistonPushes a block one meter when provided power.
34*Piston ExtensionThe end of a piston.
35-0White WoolWool blocks are recovered from sheep upon death or shearing. They can be colored using dyes (see Items section).
35-1Orange WoolSee above.
35-2Magenta WoolSee above.
35-3Light Blue WoolSee above.
35-4Yellow WoolSee above.
35-5Lime Green WoolSee above.
35-6Pink WoolSee above.
35-7Grey WoolSee above.
35-8Light Grey WoolSee above.
35-9Cyan WoolSee above.
35-10Purple WoolSee above.
35-11Blue WoolSee above.
35-12Brown WoolSee above.
35-13Olive WoolSee above.
35-14Red WoolSee above.
35-15Black WoolSee above.
36*Piston UtilityBlock used by a piston which has not yet extended but is reserving space.
37Yellow FlowerCan be picked up and replanted or crushed into dye.
38Red FlowerSee above.
39Brown MushroomCan be picked up and replanted in low light levels or made into mushroom stew along with red mushrooms.
40Red MushroomSee above.
41Gold BlockCrafted from nine gold ingots. Has no practical use.
42Iron BlockCrafted from nine iron ingots. Slightly stronger than stone.
43*Double SlabsBlocks made of two slabs simply revert to their single-block form and the world updates.
44-0Stone SlabHalf-block slabs can be climbed by the player without jumping.
44-1Sandstone SlabSee above.
44-2Plank SlabSee above.
44-3Cobblestone SlabSee above.
44-4Brick SlabSee above.
44-5Stone Brick SlabSee above.
45Brick BlockCrafted from four bricks. Slightly stronger than stone.
46TNTCan be powered or lit on fire and explodes after a three-second fuse.
47BookcaseCrafted from planks and books. Provides knowledge to Enchantment Tables (see Block ID 116).
48Mossy CobblestoneCobblestone but with moss. Occurs naturally in dungeons.
49ObsidianForms when water runs over a lava source block. Obsidian is explosion proof and can only be mined successfully with a diamond pickaxe. It is used to construct Nether portals.
50TorchCrafted from sticks and coal. Portable, reuseable light source.
51*FireBurns things and spreads to other flammable things. Cannot be directly placed by the player, but can be started using Flint and Steel (see Items section).
52*Mob SpawnerSpawns mobs. Will spawn pigs by default in the lights, and zombies by default in the dark. These settings can be changed with third-party mods.
53Wooden StairsStairs allow the player to climb a full block without jumping.
54ChestCan be used to store items in 27 slots, or can be placed next to another chest to create a large chest, containing 54 slots.
55*Redstone WirePlaced when redstone dust (see Items section) is used on a flat surface. Carries charge from a power source.
56Diamond OreDiamond ore can be mined using a pickaxe to produce a diamond. Its characteristics are otherwise identical to those of stone.
57Diamond BlockCrafted from nine diamonds. No practical use.
58WorkbenchCrafted from four wood planks, the workbench expands a player's crafting space from 2x2 to 3x3, allowing for the creation of more complex items.
59*Wheat StalksOccur when seeds are planted on farmland. Can be harvested to produce wheat bundles and seeds (see Items section).
60*FarmlandProduced by hoeing a patch of dirt. Allows for planting of melons, pumpkins and wheat. Farmland is fragile and may revert to dirt when walked upon, causing anything planted there to die.
61FurnaceUsed to smelt items, usually ores into ingots. Must be fueled using wood, coal or buckets of lava.
62*Lit FurnaceA furnace which is currently smelting something. Produces light and flame particles.
63*Sign PostOccurs when a sign (see Items section) is placed on a horizontal surface.
64*Wooden DoorCan be opened and closed by the player or pressure plates. They keep all mobs out except zombies, who can break down doors after a short period of time.
65LadderAllows the player to move one meter up a vertical surface.
66Minecart RailGives minecarts (see Items section) direction.
67Cobblestone StairsSee wooden stairs (ID 53)
68*Wall SignOccurs when a sign is place on a vertical surface.
69LeverCan be toggled on/off to provide permanent power or lack thereof.
70Stone Pressure PlateProvides power to all adjacent blocks when stepped on. Useful for opening and automatically closing doors from the inside, and for creating mob traps.
71Iron DoorCan only be opened by providing power. Mobs cannot destroy this door.
72Wooden Pressure PlateCan be stepped on by the player or have an item thrown on top of it in order to provide power.
73Redstone OreCan be mined using a pickaxe to produce redstone dust (see Items section).
74Lit Redstone OreRedstone ore reacts to the player's touch by producing light for a few seconds.
75*Unlit Redstone TorchA redstone torch that is off.
76Lit Redstone TorchA redstone torch that is on. Redstone torches provide power to redstone wiring on any adjacent block.
77Stone ButtonCan be pressed to provide one second of power to a redstone circuit
78*SnowGenerates on the ground spontaneously in snowy, tundra and taiga biomes. Can be shoveled to yield snowballs (see Items section).
79IceGenerates spontaneously on top of water in cold biomes.
80Snow BlockCrafted from four blocks of snow. Can be stacked and topped with a pumpkin to produce a Snow Golem (see mobs).
81CactusGrow spontaneously in deserts. They can only grow on sand, and deal a half-heart of damage to any entity which touches them every second.
82Clay BlockGenerate in shallow water. Can be harvested to produce clay (see Items section).
83Sugar CaneGenerates spontaneously on grass and sand blocks bordering water. Can be used in crafting to make sugar and paper.
84JukeboxPlay records (see Items section) collected from skeleton-creeper infighting.
85FenceUsed to keep players and mobs out of an area. Fences cannot be jumped over.
86PumpkinGenerate spontaneously in random areas. Can be used to create Jack-O-Lanterns (see Block ID 91), and can be worn on the player's head to avoid being attacked by Endermen (see Mobs section).
87NetherrackMakes up the majority of the Nether. Often used to construct fireplaces in the Overworld due to the fact that they to not burn away and can burn indefinitely.
88Soul SandAlso found in the Nether. Soul sand slows down players and mobs walking over it.
89GlowstoneFound in clusters in the Nether, glowstone emits strong light which does not go out underwater.
90*PortalGenerated in a 2x3 rectangle when framed by obsidian which is set on fire. Used to access the Nether.
91Jack-O-LanternCrafted by placing a torch inside a pumpkin. Can be used for underwater lighting.
92*Placed CakeGenerated when cake (see Items section) is placed on the ground. Can be consumed six times before disappearing.
93*Redstone Repeater (Off)Causes a one- to four-tick delay in a redstone signal.
94*Redstone Repeater (On)See above.
95*Locked ChestAlso know as Steve Co. Supply Crates (a parody of Team Fortress 2's Mann Co. Supply Crates). Added as an April Fool's joke to trick players into thinking that the game would be supporting microtransactions. Can be obtained through hacks but disappear when placed.
96TrapdoorSimilar to a door, but opens vertically.
97-0Stone Silverfish NestWhen broken, this block releases a Silverfish (see Mobs section). It appears to be its parent block (in this case, stone) until mining.
97-1Cobblestone Silverfish NestSee above.
97-2Stone Brick Silverfish NestSee above.
98-0Stone BrickGenerated naturally in strongholds. Can be crafted using four smooth stone.
98-1Cracked Stone BrickSee above.
98-2Mossy Stone BrickSee above.
98-3Decorative Stone BrickSee above.
99Brown Mushroom BlockGenerated spontaneously in Mushroom biomes. Can also be produced by applying bonemeal (see items section) to a mushroom.
100Red Mushroom BlockSee above.
101Iron BarsSpawn naturally in NPC villages and strongholds.
102Glass PaneSpawn naturally in NPC villages. Can be crafted in bulk using six glass blocks.
103MelonGrow from melon stems (see ID 105). Drop 3-7 melon slices (see Items section) when broken.
104*Pumpkin StemStems grow out of seeds and indefinitely produce their respective crop.
105*Melon StemSee above.
106VinesSpawn naturally on trees in Jungle and Swamp biomes. Can be climbed if touching a solid block.
107Fence GateFunctions like a door but is only a block and a half high.
108Brick StairsSee block ID 53.
109Stone Brick StairsSee block ID 53.
110MyceliumSimilar to dirt but with fungus growing on top. Spawns naturally in Mushroom biomes and releases spores.
111Lily PadSpawn naturally on top of water. Can be walked on.
112Nether BrickSpawn naturally in Nether fortresses. Properties are identical to those of bricks.
113Nether Brick FenceSee block ID 85.
114Nether Brick StairsSee block ID 53.
115*Nether WartGrows on soul sand. Can be harvested for individual stalks.
116*Enchantment TableGenerated when a player uses the enchantment table item on a flat surface. The enchantment table, when placed, generates a floating spell tome which collects knowledge from nearby bookshelves.
117*Brewing StandUsed to brew potions using magical ingredients and water bottles.
118*CauldronUsed to hold water for filling bottles. Originally intended for use in brewing but were replace with brewing stands.
119*End PortalTransport the player to the End. Can only be created inside a full End Portal Frame in which all blocks are occupied by an Eye of Ender.
120*End Portal FrameBlocks which run around the outside of an End portal and must have an Eye of Ender inserted in order to function.
121End StoneMakes up the majority of the End. Similar to stone.
122Dragon EggGenerated when the Ender Dragon is killed. Cannot be picked up.
123Redstone Lamp (Off)Redstone lamps are powered by redstone and function identically to glowstone, save the fact that their state can be toggled.



Redstone Lamp (On)

Command Block

See above.

A block used on servers which issues console commands when a player or admin activated redstone or puches a button to activate.


All items in this section are organized by ID within categories.


Tools are used to perform specific tasks. Certain tools can be built out of different materials (wood, stone, iron, diamond, and gold). Swords are no longer included here because their cutting function has been replaced by that of Shears.

IDMaterialTool NameDescription
ShovelShovels are used to harvest "soft" blocks, such as dirt, gravel, clay, and sand. They are also the only tools which can harvest snowballs from snow.
PickaxePickaxes are used to harvest stone, ores and other "hard" blocks. No other tool can yield drops from any of these blocks.
AxeAxes are used for harvesting wood and blocks made from wood.
HoeHoes are used for tilling soil into farmland.
259N/AFlint and SteelFlint and Steel is used to set other blocks on fire.
325N/ABucketBuckets are used to hold water, lava and milk. Source blocks of lava and water can be placed by right-clicking.
345N/ACompassThe Compass points towards the player's spawn point, unless in the Nether, in which case it goes berserk.
346N/AFishing RodThe Fishing Rod is used to catch fish from bodies of water, as well as to pull land mobs toward the player.
347N/AClockThe Clock gives a general indication of the time of day.
358N/AMapThe map gives an overview of a large area, and the player must uncover most of it from fog of war.
359N/AShearsShears are used to collect wool from sheep, leaves from trees and cobwebs from abandoned mineshafts.
385N/AFire ChargeUsed in a similar fashion to flint and steel. Can also be weaponized by firing out of dispensers.

Items built of different materials have varying durabilities. Durability denotes the number of times an item can be used before it breaks and must be replaced. Gold is 33, Wood is 60, Stone is 132, Iron is 251, and Diamond is 1562. Gold, however, harvests standard blocks significantly faster than all other tools.

Combat Items

Minecraft contains many types of weapons, armor and ammunition.


Armour reduces damage taken from physical attacks by enemy mobs.

HelmetHelmets are worn over the player's head. They provide approximately 15% of a full set of armor's damage reduction.
ChestplateChestplates are worn over the player's torso. They provide approximately 40% of a full set of armor's damage reduction.
LeggingsLeggings are worn over the player's legs. They provide approximately 30% of a full set of armor's damage reduction.
BootsBoots are worn over the player's feet. They provide approximately 15% of a full set of armor's damage reduction.

Different materials provide different damage reduction. Leather is 17.25%, Gold is 27.5%, Chainmail is 30%, Iron is 37.5%, and Diamond is 50%.


SwordSwords are the primary melee weapon in Minecraft. They can also be used to swiftly cut through leaves and cobwebs. Its durability ratings are the same as those for the tools above.
261N/ABowBows can be used to launch arrows. They are the only ranged handheld weapon in Minecraft.

Arrows are the ammunition for bows. They can be found as drops from slain skeletons or crafted from feathers, sticks and flint.

Also note the Shield (ID 442) That was added in v1.9.


The player must eat to stay alive. Eating enables the player to regain health and to sprint, swim and perform other physically grueling tasks.

2602Red AppleDrops randomly from trees. Can be plated with gold to create a Golden Apple.
2824Mushroom StewCrafted from a wooden bowl, one brown mushroom and one red mushroom. Returns an empty wooden bowl after consumption.
2972.5BreadCan be made by crafting six wheat bundles together.
3191.5Raw PorkchopObtained from killing pigs.
3204Cooked PorkchopObtained by cooking a Raw Porkchop in a Furnace.
3222Golden AppleCrafted by surrounding an apple with gold blocks. Golden apples cast regeneration on the player for ten seconds, healing one heart every second.
3491Raw FishObtained by fishing successfully.
3502.5Cooked FishObtained by cooking a Raw Fish in a furnace.
3546CakeCan be crafted from Wheat, Eggs, Sugar, and Milk. Cake is often seen as a milestone in a game of survival as an indication that the player has become self-sufficient. Cake is often deployed in combat as a refueling station, as it can be used six times for one food each time.
357.5CookieCrafted from two wheat and one cocoa. Often considered to be a waste of resources, as three Cookies use the same ingredients as two Bread but restore 70% less food.
3601Melon SliceObtained in bulk by breaking a Melon.
3631.5Raw BeefObtained by killing Cows.
3644SteakObtained by cooking Raw Beef in a Furnace.
3651Raw Chicken
3663Cooked Chicken


Enemies, non-player characters, and neutral creatures in Minecraft are called "mobs". There are four kinds of mobs: passive, neutral, hostile, and utility.

Passive Mobs

Passive Mobs will not attack the player under any circumstances.


Cows are useful for two reasons, 1. They can be killed for leather which is used to make the lowest level of armor in the game, and 2. With a bucket players can harvest milk from cows. Since the beta 1.8 Adventure update, cows will draw raw beef which can be cooked to make steak


Squeal, Piggy!
Squeal, Piggy!

Pigs can be killed for pork chops which serve as the primary healing item in the game. Eating raw pork chops heals a couple of hearts, but if placed in a furnace they become cooked pork chops which heals six hearts. If a pig is struck by lightning during a thunderstorm then it will become a zombie pigman; a mob otherwise only found in the hell underworld of the Nether.


Chickens can be killed for feathers; feathers are used to make arrows. If left alive, however, chickens can leave eggs on the ground. Since the beta 1.8 Adventure Update, chickens drop raw chicken when killed which can be cooked in a furnace.


Originally sheep could be punched with any non-tool to shear them for 1-3 blocks of wool. After beta patch 1.7, however, punching sheep does not accomplish anything. And while sheep drop wool upon dying, it is only a single block. Sheep must now be sheared with actual shears which harvest 1-3 wool per sheep. As of update 1.1, sheep now eat grass to re-grow their wool.


Introduced with beta 1.2, these mobs spawn only in water with a slight chance of spawning in the shallows. While these animals are peaceful they can be killed to gain ink packets. These packets can be used to dye wool black.


A Villager
A Villager

Villagers are the NPCs who spawn in procedurally-generated villages. Originally they were meant to have names, though every last one of them had "Testificate" in their name plate -- a nickname that has stuck with them since their inception. Clearly inhuman, the villagers never interact with the player and they are completely passive; not even fighting back if attacked by the player. Although most mobs ignore them completely, at night NPC villages come under attack from massive groups of zombies (as seen below) who will go to such lengths as breaking down wooden doors in order to get at the delicious villagers inside. To protect themselves, villagers construct Iron Golems, incredibly powerful constructs who will protect their masters to the death.

Neutral Mobs

These mobs will leave the player alone until provoked. The action causing provocation and the behavior of the mobs after they have been provoked differs between mobs.

Zombie Pigmen

A Zombie Pigman
A Zombie Pigman

Only found in the Nether, or if a pig is hit by lightning, Zombie Pigmen are peaceful with the player and will not attack unless provoked. They passively wander around and make sounds crossed between pigs and zombies. They become hostile and make loud angry shrieks when attacked or damaged, at which point any other Zombie Pigmen in the area also become hostile. A single player is generally no match for a group of angry Zombie Pigmen. They wield Golden Swords and drop cooked pork chops upon death. Textures exist within the game for a non-zombie Pigman creature, but there is, as of yet, no way to encounter one.


Introduced in Beta 1.4, wolves are the game's first tameable pet. They can be tamed by feeding them 5-6 bones. Once tamed, hearts will appear and a red collar is present on their neck. The player can tame more than one. The wolves will follow the player character and teleport to them if they get too far away. If the player right-clicks on them they will sit, and if the player feeds them pork chops they will regain health. Their health meter is represented by their tail (vertical tail is full health, lowered is low health). They will attack any players or mobs that the player character attacks, and defend them. Mobs will not attack them. In the wild they are neutral but will attack if provoked. They are somewhat rare but commonly found in forest-type areas.


Introduced in 1.2 of the full release, ocelots only spawn in the also-added jungle biomes, and while they will flee the player instead of engaging them if attacked, they will purposely hunt down and kill chickens. Like wolves, ocelots can be tamed, this time with the use of raw fish. However, unlike wolves, ocelots scare easily and will flee at high speeds (the only mob currently capable of sprinting) if the player moves or even looks around too suddenly near them. Once tamed ocelots inexplicably transform into house cats which come in three different varieties: tabby, siamese and tuxedo. Unlike tamed wolves, cats are not combat pets and will not defend their master if attacked by mobs (although they will still hunt chickens).


An Enderman
An Enderman

The Endermen were added starting in Beta 1.8. Technically neutral, groups of endermen will slowly wander around picking up blocks and moving them around (making them the only mob capable of directly interacting with the world's blocks apart from creepers destroying them with their explosions). However, if the player looks directly at an individual enderman by placing their central reticule over one, it will stand motionless and stare back at them until they look away. At this point, the enderman has become hostile. Afterwards, the enderman will remain perfectly still while the player is looking at them, and run towards them extremely fast while their back is turned. In addition, endermen who are not being watched have the ability to teleport about once a second. Because of their similar appearance and names it is commonly thought that the endermen were inspired by "Slender Man," a fictional cryptid invented on the Something Awful forums. Some have suggested that the Minecraft mob should have a more unique name, with "Far Lander" being suggested after the area towards the extreme edges of a Minecraft world, known as the Far Lands. Notch has made it clear that he will not be changing the enderman name, and that he would be more likely to change the Far Lands to "the End". This was later revealed as a sly reference to the secret home of the endermen; an alternate dimension called the End.

Iron Golems

No Caption Provided

Introduced in 1.2 of the full release, Iron Golems are the automatons created by the villagers to protect them from the zombie hordes. Incredibly powerful, with more health than any other Minecraft mob save the Enderdragon, golems are completely harmless to the player unless deliberately provoked. On occasion, iron golems will approach villager children and present them with roses, a reference to a scene from the film Castle in the Sky. Although they will automatically engage zombies upon detecting them, iron golems will also do battle with any mob that damages a villager in it's vicinity. They will also protect the player in this manner, making them handy to have around. The player can also construct their own golems, should they wish. Though they still have the appearance of villagers.

Hostile Mobs

A Zombie
A Zombie

Each enemy type has its own special traits. Mobs can be killed with any tool/weapon. However, a sword does the most damage and only counts as one use per hit whereas any tool will do less damage and count as two uses per hit.


The most basic of enemies, zombies are slow and moan incoherently. They can only attack from a close proximity and will only walk blindly toward the player once they see them. A recently-patched bug had zombies doing damage much more quickly than they were intended to making them incredibly dangerous opponents even for a well-armored player. Now zombies are only a minor threat to an unwary player. Zombies drop feathers when killed and catch fire in direct sunlight.

A Skeleton
A Skeleton


Skeletons are ranged opponents; only getting close enough to fire arrows at the player. Their movement patterns often involve circling the player as they get closer. Skeletons make a bone-clattering sound, but are more often identified by the sounds of their arrows being fired. Skeletons drop bones and arrows when killed and catch fire in direct sunlight.


A Spider
A Spider

Spiders are dangerous foes being the only ground mob able to jump higher than a single block. In addition to being able to scale sheer walls at will, they move somewhat slowly but leap furiously at the player once they are in range to do so. They are also only a single block tall but two blocks wide, often getting past barriers meant for the humanoid enemies. They make loud hissing noises and have no footsteps. Spiders are docile during the day-time but will still attack if attacked first. A spider that becomes hostile to the player during the night will remain hostile to the player even once the sun rises only giving up once the player dies or it does. They drop string when killed.

Cave Spiders

A Cave Spider
A Cave Spider

A smaller, more deadly spider found exclusively underground and primarily in randomly generated mines. They have all of the skills of a regular spider (wall climbing, jumping higher, etc.) plus they poison the player character if they hit them. While this poison alone isn't deadly (as it will not take the protagonist below one heart) it makes it very easy for any mob to finish you off.


A Creeper
A Creeper

Creepers are easily the most well-known creatures in Minecraft and arguably the most dangerous. They have movement patterns almost identical to zombies, but Creepers make absolutely no noise unless within attack distance, at which point they will make a loud hissing noise (similar to an old-fashioned bomb's fuse being lit), promptly before swelling up and exploding. This leaves the player about a second to get out of the blast radius. The explosion is 75% the strength of TNT, and like TNT it destroys blocks around it and does less damage the further the player character is from the epicenter. Sometimes when a creeper is triggered and the player moves away quickly enough, the creeper will recede to its normal size and will not explode. Creepers drop gunpowder when killed by normal means but will not drop anything if they detonate. They also have a chance of dropping an LP record if they are killed by a skeleton's arrow. If a lightning bolt strikes a creeper or hits very near one, they will become electrified and supercharged. Their explosion is then 50% more powerful than TNT and will usually be a one hit kill.

Some Slimes
Some Slimes


Slimes are a very rare enemy that only spawn deep underground in special chunks of the world. Certain programs or mods can be used to find where they can spawn (mainly useful for creating a slime farm). As of now in the current Minecraft 1.8, slimes are limited to spawning between the layers of 0-16, but as of 1.9 pre-release this had been expanded to 0-40. Their attack is similar to a spider's as they simply jump towards the player, albeit not as ferociously. Slimes can spawn in various sizes, merging when they stay close enough to one another for long enough. The smallest slimes cannot do damage to the player. They also can only move around by jumping making plopping sounds as they land. They drop balls of green slime when killed which can be used (along with a piston) to create sticky pistons and both push and pull blocks. Slimes also spawn on peaceful difficulty (no enemies) but do no damage.

A Ghast
A Ghast


Mostly found in the Nether, Ghasts are huge, floating ghostly creatures that are characterized by their constant moaning when idle and blood-curdling screams when attacking. They launch explosive fireballs at the player that will destroy surrounding blocks, much like a creeper's explosion. It is possible to bounce the fireballs back at the ghast either by timing a hit on it with a sword or by shooting it with a bow and arrow. If a ghast manages to hit the player's portal to the real world with its fireball, the portal will close and will need re-igniting in order for the player to be able to leave. When ghasts are killed they drop gunpowder.

Notch has added a small chance that ghasts can spawn near active portals in the real world in the 1.5 update. However, this is not as terrible as it sounds given that the real world, unlike the Nether, has no ceiling, Ghasts in the real world will mainly just float off into the sky and harmlessly fly around the cloudline.

Spider Jockey

The dreaded Spider Jockey
The dreaded Spider Jockey

Spider jockeys, a spider being ridden by a skeleton, are very rare to see. Every time a spider spawns there is a 1% chance it will spawn with a skeleton on its back making it a Spider Jockey. The creature retains the ability of a spider to climb up walls and the skeleton's ability to fire arrows making it a formidable enemy. The game still treats the mob as two separate entities, though, with the spider and the skeleton having separate health and when one is killed the other will remain. The movement of the spider jockey is decided by the spider.

No Caption Provided


Blazes are mobs found in the Nether. They usually spawn from monster spawners inside Nether Fortresses. Like most spawners, it will start spawning when the player comes within 16 blocks of the spawner. When they encounter the player, they will start flying and throwing fire charges at the player. When killed by the player they will drop Blaze rods.


Music and sound design is provided by Daniel "C418" Rosenfeld.

The game's soundtrack was released on March 4th, 2011, under the name Minecraft: Volume Alpha. The compilation contains a total of twenty-four tracks, ten of which do not appear ingame. Those tracks with file names can be found within the install directory.

No.TitleRaw File NameLength
3.Subwoofer Lullabyhal1.ogg3:28
5.Living Micehal2.ogg2:57
6.Moog City2:40
11.Mice on Venuspiano3.ogg4:41
12.Dry Handspiano1.ogg1:08
13.Wet Handspiano2.ogg1:30
23.Droopy Likes Ricochet1:36
24.Droopy Likes Your Face


The second official soundtrack was released on November 9th 2013, under the name Minecraft: Volume Beta. The album featured 30 full tracks which added new music to the game's menus, creative mode and the areas 'The Nether' and 'The End'. It also added in the music from the in-game records that was left out from the previous soundtrack.

The album features a song named 'Taswell', named after late Giant Bomb employee Ryan Davis.

3.Dead Voxel4:56
4.Blind Spots5:32
6.Moog City 23:00
7.Concrete Halls4:14
8.Biome Fest6:18
10.Haunt Muskie6:01
12.Floating Trees4:04
13.Aria Math5:10
15.Ballad of the Cats4:35
17.Beginning 22:56
19.The End15:04

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